See Itslife Library for other reading
See general teaching skills section for general sources which may well also contain this topic
Collegenet Update 2 (2005) used an analysis of over 300 OfSTED inspection reports of FE colleges to describe a 'Grade 1 Lesson' as one during which a teacher will:
Ensure an upbeat, enthusiastic welcome. Recap using an active learning technique and involve all.
Set clear aims or a maximum of three key learning points. Link to the syllabus / exam and highlight key skills / Skills for life.
Introduce the topic with a short exposition.
Aim to challenge and inspire and to build rapport.
Use up-to-date information, latest research findings or current commercial activity.
Support with some visuals, handouts, ILT and appropriate resources.
Check for learning and ensure key points are recorded.
Set an individual, paired or group activity to build key skills / skills for life and to help all consolidate learning.
Use planned questions to ensure differentiation and seek answers from all.
Offer positives and praise to each learner.
Summarise learning with an appropriate transition activity (i.e. visual memory aids).
Repeat learning cycle or end with an overall lesson summation.
Conduct a final check on learning against expressed aims.
Set formal homework task or an extended learning task.
Aim to consolidate learning or to introduce a bridge to the next lesson.
Much of this is to do with high quality planning.
The 'ASSURE' model of planning, is user friendly, and straightforward to work with. ASSURE stands for
Select instructional methods, media, and materials
Utilize media and materials
Require learner participation
Evaluate and revise
and a simple description can be found at: http://www.unca.edu/education/edtech/techcourse/assure.htm
College net has a variety of useful content relating to planning, and the site home page is at www.collegenet.co.uk
There is also the diamond lesson plan at http://www.collegenet.co.uk/index.php?main_page=page&id=69
And other relevant resources in the downloads section at http://www.collegenet.co.uk/index.php?main_page=page_2
Chickering, Arthur. W. and Gamson, Zelda. F. (2003) "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Higher Education."
Dee Fink, L. (1999). "Fink's Five Principles of Good Course Design - Reprinted with permission of the University of Oklahoma Instructional Development Program."
Don Clark's site goes through the Instructional System Design (ISD) approach in considerable depth, and starts with:
'So, why ISD? Simply stated, this process provides a means for sound decision making to determine the who, what, when, where, why, and how of training. The concept of a system approach to training is based on obtaining an overall view of the training process. It is characterized by an orderly process for gathering and analyzing collective and individual performance requirements, and by the ability to respond to identified training needs. The application of a systems approach to training insures that training programs and the required support materials are continually developed in an effective and efficient manner to match the variety of needs in an ever rapidly changing environment.
ISD is often called SAT (System Approach to Training) or ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, Evaluate).'
All up to the usual Don Clark quality, and starts at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat1.html
Guide for Busy Academics: Using Learning Outcomes to Design
HE teachers are expected to be able to show how the educational outcomes for a programme and learning outcomes for a module are being achieved; that the assessment methods used are appropriate to test the achievement of the intended outcomes; and that the criteria used to judge achievement are aligned to the intended learning outcomes. This guide is designed to provide a basic introduction to these things. Download here
James Anderton's excellent 'doceo' web site has a challenging piece on objectives which starts:
'Against Learning Objectives Some people manage to talk in the same breath about being "student-centred" and the need to have clear objectives (even behavioural objectives) for their teaching. They may even be arrogant enough to want to specify the "outcomes" of their teaching.
Formulation of objectives, particularly in its extreme form as "outcomes" is naive, objectionable and patronising.'
Get reading! It's at http://www.doceo.co.uk/heterodoxy/objectives.htm
A Scheme of work (SoW) should be in table format and include key information about the group & course on the front page.
programme details (aims; entry requirements; assessment arrangements; planning for student needs and differentiation
learning objectives / outcomes
topics / content
Key Skills/Skills for Life/Functional skills
learner activity (including differentiation / extension / assessment and evaluation)
The SoW will show thorough knowledge of the course requirements, syllabus or specifications.
THERE ARE EXAMPLES OF SCHEME OF WORK FORMATS IN THE INFORMATION ZONE - CLICK HERE
An OUTSTANDING SCHEME OF WORK should contain most of the following:
Objectives/Outcomes which are SMART, relevant, written at the appropriate level, and cover all 3 domains of learning
Opportunities for participative self directed learning built in.
Content / topics which clearly align with objectives / outcomes, indicate themes and provide a logical progression through the sessions.
Account taken of varied learning styles and student needs.
A balance of whole class, individual & small group learning activities, supported where appropriate with ILT, and which promote deep learning.
Equality and diversity which is embedded into the variety of methods and resources used.
Opportunities for developing Key Skills / Skills for Life are present throughout
Opportunities for monitoring of learning and appropriate timing of any formal assessments are clearly indicated. (NB ILPs should for most courses be referred to within SoW)
Opportunities for student feedback on their learning, and trainee evaluation of their teaching occur regularly.
Differentiation: Any extension activities or anticipated additional support needs should be included.
NB - The SoW should be a working document and not in pristine condition. It should show the changes that have occurred during its use and suggested changes for the future.
OUTSTANDING SESSION PLANS should include most of the following:
Sessions show thorough planning and are clearly based on the SoW, with all aspects of the session working together to achieve the intended learning
Key information about the group, additional needs support, level of course qualification outcomes, key skills/SfL references etc all need to be present.
A clearly planned structure to the session with clear introduction, middle & conclusion. In long sessions this may be repeated more than once.
Objectives / Learning Outcomes which are SMART and as per SoW but might be adapted based on evaluation of previous sessions or changing circumstances / needs.
Teacher activity / methods used / learner activity are stated at each point in the lesson and extension activities are included.
All practical, experiential activities including group work is consolidated via a plenary activity or activities which draw out key learning points from learners.
Assessment strategies and monitoring techniques are in use and linked to assessment activities either in or outside the session.
Key skills or Skills for Life are identified and relevantly linked to the subject matter, and referenced to the relevant KS specifications or the core curriculum codes.
Equality & Diversity are shown in planning e.g. via planned differentiation activities (Extension activities for brighter learners, additional support for learners having difficulty).
Designing learning outcomes and linking them to assessment
Extract from '500 Tips on Assessment: 2nd edition' Phil Race, Sally Brown and Brenda Smith, London: Routledge (2005)
Guide to writing learning outcomes from UCE Birmingham - http://www.ssdd.bcu.ac.uk/outcomes/
How to write a scheme of work from wikiHow http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Scheme-of-Work#Steps
Trainer's Toolkit of Templates - Don Clark again - some useful downloadable templates including several which are useful in relation to key aspects of planning: at http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/templates/templates.html
Writing Learning outcomes from the American Association of Law Libraries http://www.aallnet.org/prodev/outcomes.asp